Organizational self-renewal[ edit ] The ultimate aim of OD practitioners is to "work themselves out of a job" by leaving the client organization with a set of tools, behaviors, attitudes, and an action plan with which to monitor its own state of health and to take corrective steps toward its own renewal and development.
One method of achieving this is by having employees draw pictures of what they feel about the situation, and then having them explain their drawings with each other. The question is whether there is an adequate fit between the purpose and the internal structure.
Employees manage their performance and take corrective action when necessary to improve their and the performance of other group members. This is consistent with the systems concept of feedback as a regulatory and corrective mechanism.
Following the workshop or learning sessions, these action steps are carried out on the job as part of the transformation stage. Action research is problem centered, client centered, and action oriented.
Unfreezing old ways can be inhibited in organizations because the climate makes employees feel that it is inappropriate to reveal true feelingseven though such revelations could be constructive. Action research[ edit ] Wendell L French and Cecil Bell defined organization development OD at one point as "organization improvement through action research".
This, in turn, leads to greater personal, group, and organizational effectiveness.
People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. An early analysis of the first-self-managing work groups yielded the following behavioral characteristics Hackman, Action research is depicted as a cyclical process of change.
The use of new technologies combined with globalization has also shifted the field of organization development.
As shown in Figure 1, feedback at this stage would move via Feedback Loop A and would have the effect of altering previous planning to bring the learning activities of the client system into better alignment with change objectives.
The objectives of OD are: Drawing pictures is beneficial because it allows employees to express emotions they normally would not be able to put into words. Employees monitor their own performance and seek feedback on how well they are accomplishing their goals.
The focus is also on groups, since the relevant behavior of individuals in organizations and groups is generally a product of the influences of groups rather than of personalities.
This stage includes actual changes in behavior if any resulting from corrective action steps taken following the second stage. Such an organization may also be constrained because of the law of systems: The need for "reinventing" the field has become a topic that even some of its "founding fathers" are discussing critically.
Hence, it is easier to maintain the status quo. The principal elements of this stage include a preliminary diagnosis, data gathering, feedback of results, and joint action planning. Several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations are made in the choice of a particular strategy.
What must the organization attend to in order to survive and thrive - procedures such as planning, control, budgeting, and other information systems.
There is a direct analogy here to the practice of psychotherapy: Figure 1 summarizes the steps and processes involved in planned change through action research.
The change agent can be either external or internal to the organization. In an unfavorable climate, in contrast, learning is far less certain, and in an atmosphere of psychological threat, it often stops altogether.
This stage includes actions relating to learning processes perhaps in the form of role analysis and to planning and executing behavioral changes in the client organization.
Sponsoring organization[ edit ] The initiative for OD programs often comes from an organization that has a problem or anticipates facing a problem. But broadly speaking, all organizational development programs try to achieve the following objectives: In an inhibited atmosphere, therefore, necessary feedback is not available.
Due to downsizing, outsourcing, mergers, restructuring, continual changes, invasions of privacy, harassment, and abuses of power, many employees experience the emotions of aggression, anxiety, apprehension, cynicism, and fear, which can lead to performance decreases.
In such a case, the "contractual relationship" is an in-house agreement that should probably be explicit with respect to all of the conditions involved except the fee.A college degree is at your fingertips when you register for classes at West Virginia State University.
Whether day, night, or online, we have a. Organization development (OD) is the study of successful organizational change and performance.
OD emerged from human relations studies in the s, during which psychologists realized that organizational structures and processes influence worker behavior and killarney10mile.com recently, work on OD has expanded to focus on aligning .Download